Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by disproportionate levels of sugar in the bloodstream. It has two types, namely, type 1 diabetes because of the loss of insulin-manufacturing cells in the pancreas, which in turn results in insulin deficiency, and type 2 diabetes that results from insulin resistance or cellular inability to make use of insulin. The incidence of diabetes is increasing rapidly globally, but most significantly in developed countries. As of 2010, approximately 285 million males and females all over the world have diabetes, with Type 2 DM comprising 90 % of these cases. It is projected that by 2030, this number will increase to more than double.
What causes diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes
This kind of diabetes is , to a great degree, hereditary, and it often shows up after an infection. In type 1 DM, the immune system attacks and eradicates insulin-producing cells, leaving the body with no or minimal insulin. This kind of diabetes is not brought about by lifestyle, and it can occur during childhood.
Type 2 diabetes
This form of diabetes is a lifestyle disorder, and it is strongly linked with obesity, however, not all type 2 DM sufferers are at an unhealthy weight. Genes can also contribute to type 2 diabetes, and environmental factors triggers this predisposition. Particular diseases, polycystic ovary syndrome for instance, and some medications, just like glucocorticoids, can increase the risk for diabetes.
Both kinds of diabetes can demonstrate identical signs and symptoms. Diabetes patients often experience increased thirst and consequently frequent trips to the comfort room, extreme hunger and fatigue due to cellular starvation, and recurrent infections. Unexplained weight loss may also be experienced, but not all the time. Poorly managed diabetes can also result in microvascular changes, which can cause blurred vision, slow-healing wounds especially in the lower extremities, and decreased sensation in the hands and feet, which increases their risk of being wounded without them knowing.
At present there is no cure yet for diabetes, but it can be managed effectively and complications can be prevented through medications, like insulin and oral hypoglycemics, and changes in lifestyle, including following a controlled diet and improving physical activity. Blood sugar monitoring and routine check-ups with a physician are also important to monitor the effectiveness of disease management as well ensure the early detection of complications. For diabetes that is hard to control, a pancreas transplant is also an option, but only utilized as a final resort. It is also vital that you quit smoking and reduce alcohol intake because these can accelerate the development of complications.
The incidence of diabetes is rapidly growing across the globe, and the first step to slowing down this trend is by educating ourselves about this disease. Visit here to discover more about Cases of diabetes.
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